Type 2 diabetes now affects some 26 million Americans. The mainstay of treatment remains pharmaceutical with an unfortunately small dedication to getting the word out that lifestyle changes, like diet and exercise, matter on whole lot as it relates to the actual treatment of this disorder.
But let’s take a step back and review pertinent literature that relates diet not to the actual treatment of the disease, but to risk for becoming a type II diabetic in the first place.
In a study appearing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, risk for developing diabetes was evaluated in more than 85,000 women who were followed over a 20 year period of time. In this group of women, 4670 cases of diabetes appeared. The researchers did an analysis of the diets of each of the participants and specifically determined the amounts of carbohydrate fat and protein that these subjects consumed. In addition, they applied an analysis called glycemic load to the diets with the understanding that diet higher in glycemic load foods are those which tend to increase blood sugar.
My recent blog revealing a profound increased risk for developing diabetes in people who consume artificially sweetened beverages clearly struck a note, and with good reason. These days we are being heavily lobbied by beverage manufacturers to rethink our position on sugar sweetened beverages, no doubt because of the ever expanding medical literature that indicates that these dietary choices are profoundly threatening to our health.
In comparing risk for diabetes in individuals consuming artificially sweetened beverages compared to sugar sweetened beverages, there was actually a profound increased risk for diabetes in those consuming artificially sweetened drinks. Clearly, this seems counterintuitive. But now, new research is actually revealing the mechanism by which this actually occurs. Continue reading
Because of the close correlation between diabetes and risk for Alzheimer’s and dementia, you really want to be focusing on keeping your blood sugar under control. A new study has found that exposure to statins may put you at greater risk for diabetes, thereby increasing your chances of experiencing dementia or Alzheimer’s.
No doubt, if you’ve been following my blog, or reading Grain Brain, you’ve certainly gotten the message that you’ve got to do everything you can to avoid consumption of sugar. Scientific research has certainly made it clear that sugar consumption strongly relates to such maladies as coronary artery disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.
Unfortunately, this aggressive castigation of sugar consumption has led to an increase in people choosing to drink “sugar-free” beverages with the misguided sense that this represents a healthy alternative. The reality of the situation is that nothing could be further from the truth. In a study appearing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, French researchers attempted to determine the risk of developing type II diabetes in individuals who consumed artificially sweetened beverages in comparison to those who actually consumed sugar sweetened beverages. The study was extensive in that it evaluated more than 60,000 women over a period of approximately 14 years. Continue reading
These days most everyone is fixated on weight loss, and rightfully so. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association more than one third of Americans (34.9%) are obese and this is far more than a cosmetic issue. Obesity dramatically increases the risk for stroke, heart disease, certain types of cancer, and type II diabetes, which are some of the most common causes of preventable death.
Direct costs of obesity have been estimated to be more then hundred and $147 billion in the United States alone, so this is a big problem, no pun intended.
The looming question that is on everyone’s mind’s seems to be what is the best diet a person can adopt to realize not only the most weight-loss but weight loss that lasts. Continue reading
Bowel wall permeability, more commonly described these days as “leaky gut,” is now front and center in the news, and is well known as a cause of a large number of common disease entities. The intestinal barrier that separates the luminal contents from the systemic circulation is, incredibly, only one cell thick! This extends from the esophagus to the anus. That means that we are dependent on a one cell layer, as well as the connections between these single cells, to carefully screen what is taken in and what is excluded.
The integrity of the gut lining can be compromised by any number of influences including antibiotics, stress, various medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids, harmful bacteria, glycated proteins, and even exposure to gluten. When the permeability of the gut lining is increased, it sets the stage for a dramatic increase in inflammation and compromises our immune system’s ability to determine self versus non-self. The latter is a hallmark of autoimmune diseases including lupus, diabetes type I, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and so many more of the common maladies of our modern world. Continue reading
One of the most important concepts described in Grain Brain focuses on the fundamental role of elevated blood sugar as it relates to brain degeneration. We explored in-depth, scientific literature that demonstrates a significant increased risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease or dementia if a person carries a diagnosis of type II diabetes. This relationship was amplified recently by a study in the New England Journal of Medicine that demonstrated significantly increased risk for cognitive decline with mild elevations of blood sugar, well below levels that would indicate diabetes.
In a recent report, published in Clinical Interventions in Aging, Japanese researchers again solidified our knowledge base about the relationship between diabetes and cognitive decline. The report, “Type II Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Impairment: Current Insights“, focuses on not only statistics relating diabetes to cognitive decline, but also the mechanisms by which that happens.
The researchers describe a variety of factors relating type II diabetes to brain dysfunction including impaired neurogenesis which is the process by which we are able to grow new brain cells, specifically in the brains memory center, hippocampus. This is compromised in diabetes.
We are just beginning to gain an understanding as to the mechanisms underlying the role of gluten in inducing autoimmune diseases like type I diabetes. Much of our understanding stems from the landmark publication by Harvard’s Dr. Alessio Fasano in which he provided and in-depth and comprehensive understanding of the role of the intestinal barrier in terms of regulating inflammation as well as autoimmunity. Fundamental to his thesis is the effect of gliadin, a component of gluten, on the integrity of the gut wall.
What Dr. Fasano demonstrated was how gliadin induces the mobilization of another protein, zonulin, and how zonulin then goes on to increase the permeability of the bowel. It is this increase in permeability that is playing a pivotal role in challenging the immune system, and leading to inflammation as well as autoimmunity.
Subsequent to Dr. Fasano’s publication, researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester Minnesota published exciting research that demonstrated a dramatic reduction in development of type I diabetes in laboratory mice if they were raised on a gluten-free diet. While it is reasonable to assume that the preservation of gut integrity by not challenging it with gluten may have been responsible, the authors explored another intriguing possibility. What they found was that when these animals were placed on a gluten-free diet there was actually a significant change in the various species of gut bacteria in the animals tested. Continue reading
As I have discussed on many occasions in this forum, the process of inflammation is a cornerstone of virtually any degenerative condition in the human experience. This includes diseases like cancer, diabetes, coronary artery disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, arthritis, and so many more. So it’s really important that we take a step back and try to gain an understanding as to what influences inflammation in the first place.
I am certain that many of you now embrace the notion that a “leaky gut” predisposes us to this process of inflammation. Basically, in the healthy condition, the gut lining is selectively permeable, as well as selectively impermeable, to various bacterial components, proteins, and other gut related particles. When the integrity of gut lining is challenged, these entities gain access through the gut wall and stimulate immune reactions that activate the production of inflammatory chemicals.
So it’s really very important to gain an understanding as to the factors that can lead to loss of integrity of the gut lining and, as such, a “leaky bowel”. Continue reading
In the study described in this video, researchers showed how levels of blood sugar directly relate to risk for dementia. The investigation followed over 2,000 elderly individuals for an average of 6.8 years and found that even small elevations of blood sugar translated into a significant increased risk for dementia, even among persons without diabetes.
The implications of this report are profound. While the correlation of dementia risk, and specifically Alzheimer’s disease, with diabetes has been established, this new finding throws a much wider net in terms of defining an at risk population for an incurable brain disorder. But despite the potential public health impact of these findings, this correlation received almost no media attention.