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Category: Science


Gut Inflammation Affects the Brain

The fundamental mechanism that underlies such seemingly disparate issues as autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and various other neurodegenerative conditions, is the process of inflammation. As you will note, this has been a central theme in my recent lectures, television programs, as well as books, as this is what current science is strongly supporting.

But it now looks as if this process, inflammation, may actually begin in the gut and subsequently affect the brain as a downstream mechanism. In a submission to the Journal of Neuroinflammation, researchers at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles reported on a fascinating experiment.

Using a laboratory mouse, they administered a chemical, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), into the drinking water of some of the animals. They then examined the brains of these animals at various times up to 26 days after the chemical was placed in the water. DSS specifically causes gut inflammation.

What the researchers discovered was, in fact, quite profound. First, they demonstrated dramatic evidence of gut inflammation following exposure to DSS; there was an increase in inflammatory cells in the intestinal lining.

What was more compelling, however, is what went on in the brains of these animals. The scientist found that there was first an increase in the chemical mediators of inflammation, IL-6 and IL-1 beta, followed by activation of the brains inflammatory cells called microglia.

Even more compelling was what they found in the animals’ brain memory center. This area of the brain, the hippocampus, plays a role not only in memory but also in regulation of mood. Normally, it is fairly straightforward to demonstrate persistent growth of new brain cells in the hippocampus in the mouse brain (as it is in humans). However, when inflammation in the gut was brought on by administration of DSS, there was a dramatic reduction in the growth of new brain cells in the animals in which inflammation had been induced.

Not only was there a reduction in the growth of new brain cells, but in addition there was a reduction in the the differentiation of the brain stem cells into fully functioning neurons.

The implications of this study are breathtaking. Not only does it shed important light on the explanation as to why individuals with inflammatory bowel disease are frequently compromised with respect to cognitive function as well as mood, but it further extends our understanding of the pivotal role of gut related issues, in this case inflammation, as they relate to the brain.

It’s time that we begin looking in earnest outside of the brain for clues to our most pernicious brain maladies. By and large, researchers have come up fairly empty-handed when looking only at the brain in terms of trying to explain mechanistically what goes on in things like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

I admit that this is an animal study and that it is certainly inappropriate to extrapolate too aggressively from the results. Nonetheless, we are moving forward with a new concept of brain health and disease, and these researchers are to be praised for bringing us this valuable information.

For more information, order your copy of Brain Maker today and join Dr. Perlmutter’s email list.

  • Ri

    Dr Perlmutter I know youre a big fan of chickpeas but what about chickpea flour or garbanzo bean flour???isn’t this a great substitute for flour in recipes? you’ve mentioned coconut and almond flour but I haven’t heard much about this one!
    thanks and also what are your thoughts about FODMAPS?

    • JessWundren

      The amount of carbs in chickpea flour is far higher than coconut or almond flour (even when calculating in the fiber and coming up with net carbs). So, if your objective is to be in ketosis, you’d have to carefully calculate those carbs into your meal plan. You could probably use it, but in smaller amounts than almond or coconut flours. Another thing — coconut flour is 14% coconut oil, and about 60% of coconut oil is MCT oil, which helps a lot with ketosis. Almonds (and almond flour) are prebiotics, which helps with gut health.

      • ‘ri

        thanks so much for the reply makes total sense! I will keep those things in mind! and yes im definitely watching carbs but its so hard to get into ketosis!

        • Rosie

          Ri… I have found Garbanzo flour to be an amazing substitute for breading fish or chicken. The key is portion control…. I wouldn’t use more than 1/4 cup at a time and just lightly dust the meat with it. I have used it to lightly bread chunks of cod for fish tacos. The other thing I use it for is about 1 TBSP in beaten eggs to make a batter for
          chile relleno. As Jess says, keep it to a minimum. I have found 1 TBSP to 1/4 cup does not affect flavor of what I am adding to (you can season like you would any dry rub or dredge) but after that amount you start to get a flavor and/or texture that you will notice.

          • ri

            thanks so much for the reply Rosie! ill definitely give it a try sometime!

  • Regina

    That may have been an animal study but I can personally attest to its truth in at least one human. When SIBO reared its ugly head there was not only intense GI distress but frightening levels of brain fog as well as high anxiety. It made me wonder how many people are in psychiatric hospitals when to really heal they are in desperate need of restorative gastroenterology!

    • elsa

      I agree with you. I did a 21 day anti-inflammatory diet and the difference in my mood, weight, and especially my brain fog was dramatic. So much so that I chose to remain consuming mostly anti inflammatory foods ?
      Not to mention I’m off most of the medications prescribed for anxiety and depression. I agree with your statement about people in mental hospitals. It’s also people who are suicidal, postpartum, teenage depression, etc.

      • David Perlmutter

        Glad to hear about this health turnaround!

        • Carol

          I have suffered with gastro problems for years and was diagnosed (from biopsy of colon) with collagenous colitis in 2013. I have been gf and diary free for over six months and still struggling with constant gut inflammation. I have read (devoured) Brain Grain and believe every word of what you’ve written, Dr. Perlmutter. Bought a probiotic with the five essential ingredients you published a few months ago. Still can’t clear up my inflammation. Collagenous colitis seems to be most difficult to get under control. I also brew a tea with peppermint, thyme, marshmallow root, and fennel seed that reduces inflammation but doesn’t stop diarrhea. Any further suggestions would be so appreciated! Thanks for all your brilliant work.

          • Peter

            Try VSL#3 probiotic, but make sure you go all organic diet, no antibiotics, processed or refined foods. After 30 years of colitis, went into remission in 10 days, healed up in 6 months and has been that way for years. Same response for several people that I have recommended this protocol to.

          • Ann

            Look into Restore by Dr. Zachary Bush at restore4life.com It is potent and requires just drops at first. There is a FAQ page and a recent interview with him by Jeffrey Smith. Go slow, go low and increase only by feeling okay! Listen to his podcasts on the web site. He’s spoken at many autism 1 conferences!

          • Lisa @ Get Cultured

            Have you tried implementing bone broth or followed the GAPS protocol?

          • Rose

            Try good organic unfiltered apple cider vinegar-3 tablespoons in a tall glass of water 3x daily. Miraculous for digestive disfunction. The “mother” in the vinegar seems to get rid of bad bacteria.

          • Bruce Barton

            Works for a lot of problems!

      • Diana McCandless

        I take Prozac on and off for the last 25 years of my life, & I quit it again a year ago and I am trying to allow my body to heal on its own so that I don’t have to take prozac but I still want to be happy and not have mood swings. Today I am on day two of a gluten-free diet hoping that I can be less irritable and have a better memory in the near future.

        • spacebirdmom

          Don’t give up! Takes a while to clear out…Also, if you “mess up,” it takes a while to clear THAT out, so it’s worth it to stay “clean!”

          • Bruce Barton

            Most Doctors won’t or can’t help you! You have to observe what affects your body, everyone is diffrent!

        • Peggy

          There is a all natural substance called skull cap i kw it is sold at down to earth in port neches it helps i promise thatvis what you need.

          • Bruce Barton

            HERBS do work but the CULPRIT is too many BACTERIA inthe ssmall intestine.

      • Glo Held

        Which anti-inflammatory diet did you follow? Ty

        • elsa

          Redd River wellness center. You can find wellness centers near you, they are usually operated by chiropractors. I’m a walking testimony, it works!

      • marianmorgan

        What is an anti-inflammatory diet?

        • elsa

          It’s a diet that eliminates all foods that may cause inflammation. After 21 days, you gradually start adding these foods back. If you notice any physical or mood changes then you’ve identified a food that causes an inflammation and you should avoid it for the rest of your life. My diet eliminated all sugars, wheat, grains, tomatoes, eggs, dairy, etc. It sounds very restrictive but I was able to identify that eggs, for example, cause inflammation in my joints. I basically eat, chkn or fish, veggies and fruits, almond milk, nuts, olive oil and supplements from a wellness center. It sounds restrictive but the results were amazing! Start at a wellness center. They’ll do blood work to personalize your treatment. Good luck!

      • Bruce Barton

        My anxiety was caused by SIBO!

    • JLSLE

      “It made me wonder how many people are in psychiatric hospitals when to really heal they are in desperate need of restorative gastroenterology”!

      I too agre!!! Im my profession, I’m seeing the deadly results of this…yet they just keep drugging the citizens and institutionalizing them! That….is not helping them!

      Heal the gut…heal the brain!

    • Bruce Barton

      It’s tricky to control SIBO.


  • adriana

    This makes me think on why the gut has a similar shape as the brain, like the pecan nut that´s good for the brain and has also a similar shape.

  • Theresa

    i have been trying to stay on a fairly strict Paleo diet. ( I have early onset PD) However, being a sugar addict, I sometime weaken and indulge in some form of sugar or flour sugar combo, cupcake or similar. I am not talking dozens, just one or 2 and then try and sleep. Problems hit with vengence, restless legs, insomnia, heartburn, trmors, fatigue, fuzzy brain the next day. it takea bout another 24 hours and a good noghts sleep to get back to normal. I would happily be part of an experimantal contrao group in developing this further.

    • Yvonne Forsman

      I am on Paleo also. I have discovered that my sugar cravings are less bothering when I add more fat into my diet/every meal (org butter, coconut oil, almond oil, olive oil, avocado oil to salad dressing, soup, stew, homemade kefir/yogurt, butter on steamed veggies). Some ppl drink coffee with butter and oil. I don’t drink coffee but I do add butter and oil into an occasional cup of hot chocolate. The only sweetener I use in tea, hot chocolate and sorbet is stevia. (Sorbet: frozen fruit or berry, water, stevia, run in a food processor or blender). Sometimes I indulge in dark chocolate, 80% cocoa. Maybe increasing fat in your diet may help you with the sugar cravings?

      • Dark chocolate (organic, free-trade) is actually good for you… as for “BulletProof” coffee, couldn’t live without it… lol…

        • Rosie

          esp if you can find 70+ % cacao powder… excellent prebiotic fiber source…. so much fiber net carbs are almost nil and blends into other foods easily (I add it to my homemade full-fat Greek yogurt)

    • Mike Koehler

      Consider a magnesium supplement; something like blue ocean minerals and even a topical application like “mo Maggie” lotion would be beneficial.

      • Rosie

        Mike, you are soooo right. Magnesium is a very important supplement that does not get enough “air time.” Besides aiding RLS and night cramps (“charlie horse”), it is vital to heart/circulatory function.

        • The “form” of the Mg is important, as well… try Magnesium malate, time-release if possible…

          • Mike Koehler

            Indeed, the right form on MG is so important; magnesium taurate, or just elemental magnesium; in chatting with Malcolm, the owner of blue ocean minerals, he claims that blue ocean minerals are “pure” magnesium. Not to give too much information, I started taking 1/4t instead of 1/8t….I had to stay near a restroom for about an hour. I realized I had not read the directions properly(who can see that fine print?), backed off to 1/8t and now I’m up to 1t and I love them. Here’s a great link about magnesium!! https://www.paleohacks.com/magnesium/help-me-figure-out-magnesium-how-to-calculate-elemental-magnesium-17726

        • Bruce Barton

          Magnesium should be taken with calcium and victim D.
          it CURED my irregular heart beat! I occasional TAKE all 3.

      • Peggy

        Where do i get blue ocean minerials is that like vertox ocean water?

        • Mike Koehler

          I was reading about vortex water, never heard of it before; I was not able to see what minerals it contains however, it appears it’s similar to BOM.
          I’m not sure about the dosing with VW either, I know with BOM you start at 1/8t; if you’re looking for help with BM you can adjust the dose accordingly.

    • Rosie

      Theresa, I have definitely noticed a difference in RLS since going Paleo-style, it’s amazing. I rarely have a bout of it unless, of course, as you found out, I cheat. I am following low-carb due to T2D and high triglylcerides. My Mother had Lewy Body dementia and of course, they are now calling dementia “TYPE 3 Diabetes” for good reason. All my numbers have dropped during the course of this life-style change.

    • Michele Gregory

      My husband has early onset PD also. Have you found help since you posted this? I’m looking to put him on an anti-fungal diet and some wonderful supplements that I take.

  • Theresa

    Sorry I did not check spelling and cannot edit post !

  • JessWundren

    About half of people with Celiac Disease and Inflammatory Bowel Disease epilepsy and other neurological issues. There’s got to be a connection.

    • David Perlmutter

      Just take a look at the convincing science: http://www.drperlmutter.com/learn/studies/

    • Mike Koehler

      You know, we are becoming more and more convinced there’s a connection. Edgar Cayce talks about the enteric nervous system and temporal lobe epilepsy, which my son was diagnosed with in May of 2014.
      The changes we witnessed until June of 2015 were horrific, aggression, rage, suicidial, OCD, just horrible. We found a functional medical doctor, did some tests that the hospital wouldn’t do, started some supplements and our son is back. Ironically enough, he’s still taking the same anti seizure medication, so that didn’t create these side effects. The only common denominators are, no more PEG 3350( last exposure was golytely in January 2015) and we started restoring the gut health.
      Looking at the results from the Great Plains OATS test, we saw some liver values that were concerning and bacteria health was non existent. The stool sample showed there was little if any good bacteria.
      Starting glutathione, colostrum and a probiotic has him back to pre diagnosis state of mind. No seizures in over 4 months; we are feeling better and better that epilepsy is behind us; cautiously optimistic.


    Does this inflammation also have the same impact on the brain with ALS Disease?

    • Diana McCandless

      Hey “Ruth Schwartz”….are you Andrew’s mother who lives in Portland? If so, this is Diana…Andrew’s former co-worker at Dept of Ecology!


        No, I live in MPLS, MN.

  • RTGreenwood

    Can problematic gut inflammation be without symptoms?

    • “Gut inflammation” may not manifest as outright symptoms, especially initially, but the damage can and does occur, or perhaps you do not associate the “symptoms” as such…

  • Mike Koehler

    Our son was on miralax for almost 5 years;!since he was severely impacted, possibly obstructed a lot of the miralax ended up in the gut. We know that polyethylene glycol(PEG 3350) eradicates the gut and the gut needs weeks to return to normal. Pediatric GI doctors are prescribing miralax on a long term basis ultimately leaving these children with little or good bacteria in their gut; in our case, this lead to our sons epilepsy. I’m happy to report, one year after being diagnosed with a seizure disorder he started taking supplements to heal his gut and no longer has seizures. We meet with the neurologist in March and at that time we will ask to discontinue the anti seizure medication.
    At cancer.gov you find information on laxatives and how they are not to be used long term; they do the work for the colon and albeit make the colon useless. It’s time for us to educate the professionals as the long term use of miralax is damaging our children while tearing apart families.

    • Rosie

      It’s sad that they are prescribing the Miralax when they could be prescribing acacia fiber or inulin. Both dissolve in water & are excellent
      fiber sources. Benefiber is another one–sneaky–made of wheat dextrin. While it dissolves nicely, it introduces the wheat into the GI system. So many other products make sense.

      • Mike Koehler

        I find this interesting, some big names GI doctors admit there’s ethylene glycol in peg 3350.

        How does the body metabolize ethylene glycol? Into oxylic acid, in which oxalates are a key contributor to inflammation and are well documented in autistic patients.

        With our sons seizures being cyclical I now wonder if it took time for the oxalates to build up? His last seizure was right around his one year anniversary of being diagnosed and it’s almost now been a year since he has had a seizure. We restored his glutathione levels, added in some colostrom and a quality probiotic resulting in an improved disposition and no seizures since May 2015!!

        My hypothesis, GMO and vaccines may cause constipation; peg 3350 is then used in patients of all ages, breaking down the gut and opening the door to a litany of potentially life changing health issues.

    • Regina

      Miralax (polyethylene glycol) suggested by medical doctors for the form of SIBO with constipation is absolutely the wrong choice. It is one of the substances high in FODMAPS which must be avoided in cases of SIBO, “small intestine bacterial overgrowth”. It actually feeds the bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, worsening this persistent and life altering bacterial overgrowth.

    • SCrisman

      My daughter also has seizures related to gut issues, and we have not been able to get on top of it. Can you tell me what supplements you used to heal your son’s gut?

      • Mike Koehler

        Good morning,
        I always advise people to seek out a functional medical doctor as they could do some tests to see what’s going on in the gut and the intestines. In our situation, we are using colostrum, glutathione and a probiotic. Also suggested, fish oil, and a couple others I cannot remember however, our son did not tolerate them well. I would also consider looking into restore4life.com. We are going to start that slowly here in the immediate future. I hope that helps a little!! Our son has been seizure free now for four(4) months while his whole disposition has returned as well!!

      • Mike Koehler

        I apologize for the delay in getting back to you…..I would seriously consider finding a functional medical doctor that could do some tests(non invasive) such as a stool sample and something like the Great Plains OAT provided us with an abundant amount of information. We then started glutathione, colostrol and a good probiotic(HMF Neuro). Each person will be different and therefore I highly recommend getting the additional tests done to see exactly what supplements are necessary. Also consider restore(restore4life.com) and Barleans Omega(http://www.barleans.com/omega-kids.asp). I hope that helps!!

        • Ann

          Amen to Restore; listen to the podcasts. Quite good

      • Mike Koehler

        How is your daughter doing today, have you found anything to help with the seizure issues?

        • Jay

          Hi Mike, I have seen some of your posts about Keppra and Miralax. You have correctly said that these are toxic drugs and in fact they cause more seizures (FDA reports). Natural options for constipation are Castor Oil and Organic Vinegar. Eat garlic and onions. Mozart music and Exchange breathing are also very helpful in preventing or reducing the severity of seizures to ensure that it does not become a hospital trip. Ordinary white salt is very bad and it strips body of essential minerals.and should be replaced with Himalayan pink salt. Eat avocados and mix organic coconut oil in food and they will help in generating Ketones in body. Ketones nourish the brain and prevent seizures. Eating Turmeric and Black pepper in food helps in growth of new brain neurons. As you know, doctors are the legal drug pushers and parents do not have much rights in our country. I have a pending federal lawsuit against a big hospital and doctors for forcing Keppra on my 10 year old son.

          • Mike Koehler

            Jay, thank you for your response, you seem quite knowledgeable. Thankfully our son is no longer dealing with constipation and has been seizure free for two years; not to mention he’s been off of pharmaceuticals for almost 4 months. If you have any studies you may find beneficial, I’m all ears. I’m one of the administrators in the FB group Parents Against Miralax. I’m hoping to change the way miralax is used in the pediatric population.
            I couldn’t agree more, every illness seems to start in the gut(unless there’s a malformation/physical issue); between fatty acids, gut bacteria and all the chemicals in our food supply the health of our future generations is in grave danger.

          • Jay

            Have sent a request for joining your group.

          • Jay

            You can also join this FB group ( Diets for Epilepsy) – Very knowledgeable group of parents. I am just a member of this group (I did not start this group nor am I a admin of this group)

    • DzynrGrl1

      I did not know that polyethylene glycol is so bad. It was what I was told to take for a colonoscopy prep last March. Could that have wrecked my gut? I’ve been battling malabsorption and my BMI is just at the edge of being too low.

      • Mike Koehler

        Absolutely, there are studies out there that state 96% percent of colonoscopy patients using a PEG related product show an eradicated gut; another study shows it takes weeks for gut health to be restored.
        Now, when thinking about these kids that are on PEG(miralax) for years, what’s happening to them?
        For your next colonoscopy consider mag citrate(make sure it doesn’t contain PEG) or blue ocean minerals. There are other colon prep meds coming out….I would check the ingredients first.

        • DzynrGrl1

          For my colonscopy I was given instructions to start with PEG 3350 the night before and use magnesium citrate the following morning (had a noon appointment). So I had both.

    • Suzana BS

      Hey, I would like to know what have you done to replace miralax? Thanks

      • Mike Koehler

        I’m assuming you have seen the media piece? I’m the father in that story; http://6abc.com/news/parents-say-over-the-counter-medicine-sickening-kids-/1753317/
        Anyway, consider joining our group on FB parents against miralax, othersie I’m assuming this miralax is for a child?

        • Suzana BS

          Yes, it is for my children, they are using similar product movicol; they are on it for about two years. Conditions and seizures slowly worsened, I didn’t know why. Partially it was because of infections, some autoimmunity, genetic, etc… They can not go without it. Traditional approaches like fibers, fruits, mg, linseed, even exclusion diet (milk) were not for us (very long story). I tried a lot of things so we need combined approach – everything by bit but nothing too much.

          • Mike Koehler

            How long have they been on peg 3350/movicol?

          • Suzana BS

            They have been little more over 2 years. I took one of them off from last time we discussed (18 days), and instead she is on natural mineral water (spring) containing magnesium sulphate; it is working for her stool but she is not better mentally and motorically, actually her condition worsened a little bit. Is this possible???

          • Mike Koehler

            Unfortunately nothing is surprising with PEG 3350 and its potential toxicities. How old is your child? I ask only because a member of our FB group “Parents Against Miralax” just took her child to a naturopath here in Wisconsin, I could share the treatment plan with you however, I’m a firm believer that no two people are the same. What it will do is give you an idea of what your child may be dealing with. What is your availability to seek out a naturopath? Traditional doctors just don’t look at he body as a whole and to me this is very troublesome.

          • Suzana BS

            My children will be nine yrs at end of April. There is impossible I could have naturopath nearby. I don’t have luck with traditional doctors (of any kind) either. I only know they are lactose intolerant (I took them off), gluten sensitive (they are gluten free for 3 years) and nothing helps.

          • Mike Koehler

            Was that you I just added to the FB group? If so, can I message you the doctors recommendations to overcome the toxicities of PEG 3350? I understand some of the products may be a little challenging for you to get as I believe you’re not in the states(movicol is used in EU I believe).

          • Suzana BS

            Yes, I just joined FB group. I am from Europe, but I regularly use iherb page for products.

  • TF

    Dr. Perlmutter,
    I found this site after hearing you on Dr. Hoffman’s podcasts and reading Brain Maker.
    To control IBS, I’ve been on a very-low-carb diet that’s essentially a restrictive intersection of the SCD and the FODMAP-elimination diet. Are the prebiotics (potato starch, acacia fiber) in the probiotics that you’ve formulated for Garden of Life suitable for my regimen?

  • christine

    What about Aspartame? do you know if it is the same thing for aspartame as I noticed that I loose memory when I drink Diet Coke. Is there a research on it?

    • David Perlmutter

      If someone must have an artificial sweetener, Stevia is the best option.

      • christine

        You have to talk to Coca Cola about that then

        • Maddy

          Aspartame is nasty! Do some research. Maybe you should give up Diet Coke. There r plenty of substitutes.

      • ri

        nobody likes the aftertaste though what about organic raw honey ?as dr gut balance revolution recommends
        I also blend dates and they make a nice natural sweetener

    • Sodas are pure poison, diet sodas are the worst… stevia, alcohol sugars, monk fruit extract, and sodium saccharin (NOT Sweet & Low), are all fine… some people have a response to some alcohol sugars, but xylitol is generally well-tolerated, in small amounts, and there are people (like myself) who don’t care for the “taste” of stevia….

      • ri

        nobody likes the after taste of stevia so no its not a good option..raw organic honey is fine

        • Vicki Vgouldin

          I had a friend switch to Stevia many months ago, at first he didn’t like the aftertaste but he persevered, now if he has something sweetened with sugar he cant stand the taste. I believe it takes 21 days to adjust to a new taste, so you need to consider that.

  • Lynn Dell

    I don’t know what role probiotic supplementation plays in decreasing gut inflammation per se, so this is probably tangential to your main entry, but I have noticed (and have wanted an occasion to say something for a while) since ramping up probiotic intake that my motion sickness has almost completely gone away. I never could read maps to help navigate in the car on account of getting sick immediately after starting to read, and the past few times I’ve glanced at a map in recent months, I realized I could look at the thing for a full minute and only felt something that never became nausea. Thanks so much for all your work!

  • ri

    hi all! can you someone please tell me what the healthiest protein bars are? I read that Quest bars are good because they are sweetened with stevia and low carb high protein-im looking for one that’s all natural and tastes great and dr p would approve of

    • You are better off with unsweetened organic jerky… or mixed nuts WITHOUT peanuts…

      • r

        thanks MR I think youre right ive never been into protein bars much id rather eat real food

  • Kim Mensink Chartrand

    This puts me in mind of the recent study done in Denmark looking at the incidence of Parkinson’s Disease being lower in those who had gotten a vagotomy. Researchers wonder if a neuropathogen “travels” up the vagus nerve from the gut and negatively affects brain function via inflammatory responses to infection.

    • Michele Gregory

      I read that too recently.

  • loriford

    I just received my first bottle of Dr. Formulated Probiotics Once Daily Women’s. The directions tell me to it may be taken with or without food. A recent post by Dr. Perlmutter said to take on an empty stomach and do not drink with municipal water. Which is correct?

    • Dr. Perlmutter is correct (as usual… lol)… usually, prebiotics should be taken WITH food, and probiotics on an empty stomach… and you should not consume “municipal” water that has not been filtered… most, if not all are chock full of, dare I say it ? CRAP YOU DON’T WANT IN YOUR BODY !!!

    • jean

      Where do you find or buy Dr Formulated Probiotics for women?

  • Beatrice Nordberg

    Very interesting study, even more reason to stay clear of gluten. I just discovered that one of my innocent looking supplements (pomegranate) also contains sugaroxide dismutase gliading complex (500 jmg) I stopped it immediately. There was only a miniscule warning about wheat allergy on the bottle. Thanks to learning so much about gluten (gliadin) I became alert to the danger.

  • Thank you so much for this information. I especially thank you for including the research article citation, which allowed me to do more research and better understand the relationship to hippocampal neurogenesis. Thanks for listening to your readers by including the citations.

    • David Perlmutter

      I try to provide that information whenever possible.

  • Veronika Kissel

    I have found that the powdered herb stevia tastes alot better than the refined version (white powder).It doesn’t have that bitter aftertaste. However, it is a dark green colour. Some people may be put off by that.

  • Patricia

    Have you done any research on the long term effect of antidepressants on a person? It’s been 15 years since I have been off a whole slew of different drugs (SSRIs, SNRIs, MAOI, Tricylics,and more). The last two years I have eaten a clean diet. I have constant insomnia (which started when on all of the drugs), migraines every two weeks for 2.5 days and sexual dysfunction.

  • Bri Boss Ladi

    I have a skin disorder called hydradentitis suppurativa which has alot to do with inflammation of the hair follicles. Very very painful. There gas to be a strong correlation between gut health and this disorder as well. When i dont eat trigger foods and take my probiotic daily its not as bad but i do wish there was a better alternative to cure it.

  • Bruce Barton

    I’ve done a lot of research recently on SIBO. I HAD a problem with GUARDIA parasite in 1970 and was treated with FLAGAL, probably spelled wrong.

    That parasite lives right below the stomach before it becomes the small intestine.
    I controlled the GOUT with Dr. CHRISTOPHER JOINT FORMULA!

    I took the JOINT FORMULA for 26 YEARS and it controlled my GOUT!
    One year ago I retired at 68. I started REMODELING our house and realized that I could only work a couple hours and would be exhausted! This problem had been coming on for about a year and my GOUT had got worse again.

    I remembered the Geardia Parasite symptoms and thought that I may have that again!
    I went to the local Herb store and bought an PARASITE REMOVING MIXTURE.

    I STARTED TAKING THE ANTI PARASITE MIXTURE and In 2 days my strength returned!

    Now I have energy like I used to!
    AMAZINGLY I looked atthe llabel of the PARASITE killer and it was almost the same as the Dr. CHRISTOPHER FORMULA!
    After research I discovered that Parasite and BACTERIA are suspected of causing GOUT, Arthritis, IBS, Anxiety, abs other brain related problems!





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