Category: Science

Magnesium Threonate Powers the Brain

Lately, in the lectures that I have been presenting to medical professionals, I have been emphasizing the virtues of magnesium threonate. Aside from the information I’ve been presenting, I thought it would be good to actually visit and review some of the exciting new information about what clearly appears to be offering up an exciting new area of chemistry related to neuronal function and brain function in general.

Learning is the process by which the brain is able to store new information by forming new connections between neurons in what are called networks. This process is an example of neuroplasticity. This process depends on the actual formation of these connections, as well as the number of connections that are available. We do know that when synapses, the connections that allow one nerve cell to communicate with the next, are diminished, memory impairment ensues. And indeed it is thought that this loss of synapses is an explanation for what is called “age dependent memory decline.”

Synapse formation is dependant upon a variety of factors that have been well studied including insulin, ghrelin, various trophic hormones, and, as we have now learned, the ion magnesium, which enhances the activity of more than 300 enzymes.

It has now been discovered that magnesium is a critical player in the activation of nerve channels that are involved in synaptic plasticity. That means that magnesium is critical for the physiological events that are fundamental to the processes of learning and memory.

As it turns out, one form of magnesium, magnesium threonate, has the unique ability to permeate the brain and enhance the receptors that are involved in this process.

As reported in the journal Neuron researchers demonstrated actual enhancement in the learning abilities, working memory, as well as short as well as long-term memory and even quality of sleep, in laboratory animals, who were given magnesium magnesium threonate.

One of the most aggressively studied forms of magnesium threonate is a patented product called Magteinä, developed by researchers at MIT including a Nobel Prize winner. Their research has  demonstrated actual restoration of function in aging neurons in laboratory animals. Further, it appears that this specific form of magnesium, Magteinä, may in fact be the only form of magnesium that significantly increases the levels of magnesium within the brain.

  • TechnoTriticale

    Oh rats, there’s only rat trials so far 🙂
    But at least one human trial is in progress,
    with encouraging anecdotes.

    Meanwhile, over a dozen supplement sellers already offer products containing the proprietary magnesium-L-threonate form.

    Based on the dosage suggested on the Magtein™ website (1 gram/day), this implies getting all your Mg supplementation in that form. One prominent nutrition advocate on the web is already endorsing that approach.

    I don’t have an opinion on this, but will be following developments.

    • Lynn Dell

      I can’t help it . . . those first three lines are poetic. They me of a haiku poem.

      • lindasartori

        For Valentine haiku,
        see SusaSilvermarie.com

        • Lynn Dell

          That was a beautiful Valentine poem that could apply to anybody, including those changing their lifestyle goals!

  • Lynn Dell

    Thanks for sharing what is going on in the field of nutrition research!

  • Ron

    How easy is it to get 1G from leafy greens?

    • jazzfeed

      Depends on the soil it was grown in!

    • mjm2092

      It’s as easy as eating 2 POUNDS of kelp, or 2.5 POUNDS of kale or navy beans to get 1g of magnesium. And most vegetables have even less. The RDA is “only” 400mg, but even this is nearly unattainable through diet alone.

  • Joseph Schwartz

    Any thought on Magnesium Lactate as a viable non patented alternative to threonate ?? Magnesium Aspartate? A description of mechanisms in absorption and utilization of either would be appreciated.

    • Mariel Thomson

      Not Mg Aspartate. A lot of sources think it is a potential neurotoxin, such as aspartame and MSG.

      • Joseph Schwartz

        I thought that as well. The possible reason for aspartate might be to open up NMDA receptors and allow for cell membrane transport of Mg into the cell. The problem is Ca also rushes in when NMDA receptors remain ungated.

      • Joseph Schwartz

        Any thoughts in Mg Lactate?

    • Liz

      Check out a couple articles on magnesium that Dr. Mercola has on his info site (not his product site). Much detail there.

    • Charla

      Dr. Russell
      Blaylock warns that magnesium aspartate may offer the body too much aspartic
      acid, an amino acid that causes brain stimulation; he recommends avoidance.

      “…studies have shown that glutamate, and other excitatory amino acids, attach
      to a specialized family of receptors (NMDA, kainate, AMPA and metabotrophic)
      which in turn, either directly or indirectly, opens the calcium channel on the
      neuron cell membrane, allowing calcium to flood into the cell. If unchecked,
      this calcium will trigger a cascade of reactions, including free radical
      generation, eicosanoid production, and lipid peroxidation, which will destroy
      the cell. With this calcium triggered stimulation, the neuron becomes very
      excited, firing its impulses repetitively until the point of cell death, hence
      the name excitotoxin. The activation of the calcium channel via the NMDA type
      receptors also involves other membrane receptors such as the zinc, magnesium,
      phencyclidine, and glycine receptors.”


      Blackstone CD, Huganir RL. Molecular structure of Glutamate Receptor Channels.
      In, Stone TW, ed, CNS Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators: Glutamate. CRC
      Press, Boca Raton,
      1995, 53-67.

  • Ahmed

    Until very soon, it was advised to take the magnesium from Magnesium glycinate not Oxide, is that still valid

  • FloxieHope

    Magnesium Threonate has helped people to recover from fluoroquinolone toxicity. Here is some information from Ruth on how it helped her – http://floxiehope.com/2015/01/07/the-floxie-hope-podcast-episode-6-ruth-young/ and http://floxiehope.com/ruths-story-cipro-toxicity/

    • Lynn Dell

      Thanks for sharing about this woman’s journey to good health!

    • Mary

      My own doctor tried to order a fluoroquinolone antibiotic for a UTI about 2 months ago. I checked its name, and decided, Doc, order something different. They ARE commonly prescribed for UTI’s.
      Maybe I would have been okay. It was not worth the risk to me.

  • Marilyn

    I think I’m going to scream! I’ve been taking mag citrate every day for a few years.. and now.. as with anything..it has to be this form? ARGH!!!

    • Mag Citrate works differently than this form. It still has benefits, but this more. And it costs more. You can get 15% off and free shipping at http://www.covenanthealthproducts.com/neuro-mag-90-capsules-by-life-extensions If a coupon code doesn’t pop up, try using the word, LUCKY.

    • David Perlmutter

      The research has revealed that it is uniquely this formula that gets into the brain. We continue to use Magnesium citrate especially in people with constipation issues.

      • John Brailsford

        I use transdermal magnesium chloride. Most mornings I rub it into my stomach but have also taken to rubbing it into my hair and scalp. I am sure that must get to my brain

        • Liz

          Maybe through your scalp, soft tissue. BUT, How would it get through your skull? : )

          • John Brailsford

            When it gets through my scalp it will get into the blood stream in my head and circulate there so not needing to break through the blood brain barrier. Thar’s the theory and I do feel a positive effect

          • Liz

            I hope it continues to work for you.

          • Gennady Panfilov

            Your scalp is separated from brain blood flow by blood-brain barrier as well as your feet, arms, chest and anything else (but the spine liquor). That’s totally nonsense.

      • Kathryn

        How many mgs daily?

      • Donnamamma

        I’ve been taking magnesium citrate (800 mg) for years before bed. It calms me for better sleep and helps with constipation. Magnesium citrate is the only form I can handle several other forms I tried cause my hands to become incredibly stiff and dry feeling to the point where it wakes me up at night. It’s very uncomfortable, any thoughts on why this happens?

  • TLam

    I’ve been taking Neuro-Mag Magnesium L-Threonate by Life Extension daily for almost a month now. When could one expect to begin to signs of change?

    • JayKay

      Good question. I’ve been taking it too hoping it is better.

    • Georgia Cavalluzzo Spizzirri

      I have been taking this brand for over a year now and it certainly helps with my neuropathy. I also sleep better. If I go off it I do notice a difference.

      • Diane

        Which brand? And how much do you take and when?

    • Rick

      According to http://www.magtein.com/faqs.html, effects are quite soon, like two weeks

      • TLam

        I read yesterday on Dr. Mercola’s website that I should have been taking 2 capsules mid day and 2 more about 2 hours before bedtime. I increased my dose yesterday to align with that recommendation and am already noticing a positive difference.

        • gaylep

          Is there any danger in taking too much magnesium? Is this dosage supposedly recommended for the general public?

          • Truth59

            Too much magnesium can lead to loose stools. You definitely don’t want that. The RDA is between 300-500 mg generally but if you have loose stools with that much, take less.

          • deenie1219

            I need to take a lot of mag to get loose stools. I take over a gram a day of various forms (including glycine, malate, citrate, and threonate) and still have no loose stools. IMO, some people just require a whole lot more than the RDA to experience the benefits.
            Dr. Carolyn Dean takes the ionic form, nano-sized particles, and I think that form will migrate to all parts of the body, including the brain and spinal fluid. The ionic form will not induce loose stools. But I’ve read no reviews from peeps as to whether this stuff is really good or not. Myself, I remain leery of nano-sized particles of anything.

    • Try my lotion. My customers see change really quickly. I saw a difference the very first day of use. Find me on fb Indigo’s Magnesium Lotion by Mary Curtis

      • Ingrid Cotey

        I have almost finished using 1 container of your lotion, and I’m seeing a slight change. Because it is greasy and wet once it is applied, the major problem using it is it stains everything it touches and it takes a very long time to absorb into my skin. I have ruined many nice shirts and a few sheets on my bed. I would like to apply it to my neck and shoulders, but I don’t want to ruin more shirts. Also it’s not convenient to apply it when I am at work for that reason.

    • Dr. Michael L. Smith

      you have to give single nutrient supplementation at least 2-3 months. The threonate form isn’t always the best for everyone. It may change the weight of your wallet so to speak…..

    • milomindbender

      Both the powder and the capsule by Life extension apparently have metal (lead?) in them. the capsule can’t be sold in CA wo a Prop 65 warning label. I am no expert, but that’s why i am on site looking for a safe form.

  • Automan

    What about Magnesium Chloride? Still good enough?

  • Michelle C.

    What do you think about spraying magnesium oil on the body? Would the absorption be a good source of magnesium threonate? Also, are there any foods besides spinach and almonds that would have a good amount? Thank you!

    • John Brailsford

      Magnesium oil is magnesium chloride in an aqueous solution, about 31% MgCl. Apply with a spray to your skin. Rub some into your stomach every day,- absorption goes quicker after a shower when the pores in the skin have opened up. If it stings a bit you can dilute with some water or add MSM, which is what I do.

    • Danny

      To my understanding, raw, organic cocao nibs are supposed to contain some of the most magnesium along with all the seaweeds.

    • Danny

      I’ve gone through about half a gallon/yr for the past 3 years (almost) of Ancient Mineral’s topical Magnesium Oil Ultra (w/ OptiMSM) as a mercury poisoning and TBI survivor. It’s been essential in my recovery, I feel. Feel free to visit my site at https://www.facebook.com/supplements123 to learn where I got mine.

  • Annette

    What foods contain magnesium threonate? I’m not big on synthetics or supplements when nutrition can simply come from food.

    • Irene

      I’m with you…………….real food, real power!
      I do not like anything synthetic.

      • Richard

        But so much of our ‘real food’ is sucking wind these days. Our factory farms don’t care about nutrition. Just about big crops. And they pump so much through their soils that many of the important nutrients are long since depleted.

        This is where supplements become more and more necessary. Supplements have become an important part of a rounded diet.

      • Vonita

        Magnesium Threonate is synthetic. That is why a patent on it was possible. It is man-made.

      • Godfrey

        Fine, but that is a foolish stance.

    • Cynthia Laughery


      Great question about getting magnesium from food. Unfortunately, due to our agricultural farming practices, magnesium is almost non-existent in our soils, therefore our foods are greatly lacking. This became so obvious and alarming back in the 30’s there was actually a congressional hearing about it! (Can you imagine, goverment actually cared about the nutrition of its people…so different from today’s leaders) Supplementing with magnesium to bowel tolerance is extremely important as it is used in so many bodily functions. (Selenium too, seems to come up missing in our soils – a trace mineral which has the reputation of staving off cancer) Hope this helps.

      • Cherryl

        There is probably still magnesium in my soil because it has never been used for agricultural production. All kidding aside, how can home gardeners ensure our soils are replenished? Is it possible?

        I live in a very rural area of Missouri, and use deep well water for irrigation. It seems there are trace minerals in that water, especially calcium and magnesium. Zinc and selenium I take as a supplement.

        • Cynthia Laughery

          Hi Cherryl, I’m not an expert, but I would take a soil and water sample to know for sure. In being a nutritional counselor and massage therapist for over 30 years, most people seem to need more magnesium in their diets. It’s one the of supplements I feel I can safely recommend to my clients and wonders have occurred in the health when it’s been added.

          • Debbie Filby

            Which kind do you recommend and what brand?

          • Janice Giordano

            I recommend the trade marked Magtein. You can get it on Amazon. I take it for ADD and it is amazing how it helps my brain function!

          • Peter8Piper

            Don’t fall for the lie that plants don’t get enough minerals from the soil. Most people don’t think about the PLANTS that we eat for food. If they don’t have the right amount of “food” from the soil, they will die. They have to maintain their OWN health in order to live. If they don’t, they will die, or at the least, look unhealthy. So tell me again about the hype that food plants today don’t get enough minerals from the soil to make you healthy. If they don’t, then how do THEY look so healthy?

        • Katy

          It’s not necessarily that the magnesium is not present at all in soil – but because of soil acidity it is 50 cm below the soil surface, in some areas.

        • aconite1

          I have good luck with powdered kelp. sometimes in bulk it drops to $3-$4 a pound.

        • Carol

          Before NPK fertilizer, farmers and gardeners used wood ashes to replenish minerals. Also: it seems that Epsom Salt (magnesium sulfate- very cheap) would replenish magnesium, and plants do well with it:

          • Peter8Piper

            And soils are replenished with minerals TODAY. Most people don’t think about the PLANTS that we eat for food. If they don’t have the right amount of “food” from the soil, they will die. They have to maintain their OWN health in order to live. If they don’t, they will die, or at the least, look unhealthy. So tell me again about the hype that food plants today don’t get enough minerals from the soil to make you healthy. If they don’t, then how do THEY look so healthy?

        • Peter8Piper

          It’s a big farce that plants don’t get enough minerals from the soil. Most people don’t think about the PLANTS that we eat for food. If they don’t have the right amount of “food” from the soil, they will die. They have to maintain their OWN health in order to live. If they don’t, they will die, or at the least, look unhealthy. So tell me again about the hype that food plants today don’t get enough minerals from the soil to make you healthy. If they don’t, then how do THEY look so healthy?

      • miquel demur

        threonine and magnesium give threonate

        magnesium is found in basalt

        • Pyoga

          Only organic foods will contain natural amounts of trace elements, like magnesium.

          • Laura

            Magnesium is actually a macro mineral like calcium and potassium, and is needed by the body in large amounts.

          • Picklem

            No, sadly, organic comes from deteriorated soils for the most part

      • Channing
        • Laura

          Channing, go to PubMed and look up “magnesium” and you will see numerous scientific studies over decades showing that low magnesium levels in humans are linked to all kinds of health problems. I did a report on this for my graduate level nutrition studies and I was surprised at the amount of research out there.

      • GRoy

        Cynthia, your comment about magnesium being almost non-existent in our soils is not true. As a farmer we have soils with excess magnesium and the levels are climbing. Optimal soil levels are 11-13% of CEC and some of our soils have up to 50%. We use calcium (aka ground limestone) to balance the soil and tie up excess magnesium. If the soil has too much magnesium then it becomes unavailable to the plant (makes the soil very hard with large cracks when dry).

        We used to get Magnesium from our drinking water if you had a good well. The modern water purification takes out Magnesium along with bacteria and other ‘impurities’.

      • Peter8Piper

        Most people don’t think about the PLANTS that we eat for food. If they don’t have the right amount of “food” from the soil, they will die. They have to maintain their OWN health in order to live. If they don’t, they will die, or at the least, look unhealthy. So tell me again about the hype that food plants today don’t get enough minerals from the soil to make you healthy. If they don’t, then how do THEY look so healthy?

    • Sigi

      Food isn’t always what it’s cracked up to be. Think about this, it’s only as good as the soil it was planted in and it’s usually depleted. Look up Dr. Peter Glidden and Dr. Wallach on YouTube. High quality supplements can do amazing things for you/

    • Rhea11

      It’s not in the food anylonger .. maybe traces of it but it is nòt what is once was. Same goes for Selenium and other trace minerals. We must get it from supplements, I’m afraid. Be well.

      • deenie1219

        Brazil nuts supposedly have about 25ug of selenium per nut. Since these nuts are wild harvested they do still remain a good source of selenium. It would take 8 of them to get a good dose of selenium. They are delicious and have other things going for them too. I still take about 600ug of selenium a day for its cancer preventative qualities. Of course, mag threonate too. My brain needs all the help it can get.

    • Vonita

      Annette, Magnesium Threonate is synthetic. That is why a patent on it was possible. It is man-made.

      • Godfrey

        The formulation is “man-made”… but the Mg is real Mg!

    • disqus_DlZXTPZOe8

      The question is simple: what foods contain or soils contain this form of mineral, magnesium threonate? The lack of response to the actual question is it’s answer, none! This is a man made mineral developed in a lab by MIT. That does not mean it doesn’t have its merits but I myself would no consider it natural.

    • Ruth Lacey

      Just tried to post and it wiped my comments … best form (and dose) please, any recommendations for a potassium/magnesium supplement for a child in tablet form please – thanks!

    • concerned_amer

      No foods contain magnesium l-threonate—it is a synthetic compound not found in nature. I have used many types of magnesium supplements and the only one that has genuinely improved my mental acuity is magnesium l-threonate. I use the Magtein brand and take one capsule in the morning and one in the evening. It takes about 30 days of two capsules per day to see results. I am just completing my first bottle and I will be putting this product on autoship from Amazon.

    • Janice Giordano

      It is not dietary like other forms of magnesium. I have had amazing success with it and get it on Amazon

  • Arne

    EVERY Magnesium compound does cross the BBB and ALL those non-neurotoxic Mg-compounds like Mg-Chloride, -Malate, -Glycinate, -Orotate, -Taurate, -Citrate etc., even the bad Mg-Oxide will improve not just the brain function in humans dramatically! There is no need to promote such expensive stuff because there is a Big-Pharma-Patent on it! Arne, “MS” victim for over 20 years and on my way to recovery from SPMS since using Magnesium Chloride oral & transdermal for the last 3 years (~$70 for 20kg, which is enough for one year and to get rid off all the other pharma sh… inclusive the med. Establishment).

    • Victoria Murphy

      What is the daily dosage of magnesium chloride and how do you take it please? Victoria

      • Mary

        No one can tell you the capacity of YOUR body when taking any magnesium supplement. Go slowly and when you get diarrhea, CUT BACK.

        • Carol

          Could you tell us how much magnesium is absorbed transdermally during an Epsom salt (mag. sulfate) bath? Although this form might not cross the BBB as mag. threonate does, it seems it would be a nice source for the rest of the body, without the worry of diarrhea.

          • Alessandra Fissinger

            I get diarrhea after a good Epsom soak.

    • Cheryl Greene

      I agree that expenaive versions of magnesium should not be promoted for everyone. However, even though all forms will cross BBB, there are other considerations. Some people might not get side affects from the chloride form, but I did. Also each form has a different percentage that is absorbed. These are things that need to be considered. I currently take Ionic magnesium and have had wonderful results so why change?

      • Michael Roberts

        Most forms of magnesium do not effectively cross the blood brain barrier. The magnesium threonate is a chelated magnesium (similar to magnesium Glycinate, etc) which binds the magnesium with threonate. This chelation provides a form or magnesium that effectively crosses the blood brain barrier and positively impacts synapses. This form is not natural and cannot be found in foods. Keep in mind that the reason various forms of magnesium are available is due to the fact that not everyone can absorb magnesium effectively based on unique health circumstances. For example, magnesium citrate requires a healthy stomach environment with healthy acid production in order to be absorbed. Magnesium Glycinate is more readily absorbed…not requiring the acids, with less side effects (discomforts).

        • Karen Conklin

          But Seven Seas spray on, works great, always absorbed & no diarrhea.

        • Tom Clayton

          You neglected to mention that magnesium chloride completely dissociates in water and therefore has very good absorption besides the fact that it is inexpensive. How do you think magnesium gets to the brain normally? If threonate is not found in nature, then why is that being compared? I read the original study on threonate and I like the images of increased synaptic activity but no other forms of magnesium were studied in a like manner. Threonate is too expensive and there is too much inaccurate hype.

          • Godfrey

            You have no scientific basis to make your statements… many articles on Mg-T indicate it is the only Mg to cross the blood/brain barrier, and they have no dog in the hunt, i/e. they are not selling the stuff.

          • Tom Clayton

            Thanks for clarifying what you do not know. What did humans do before mg threonate? Here is an article from 1992 about (cheap) mg sulfate crossing the BBB.


          • Godfrey

            Thanks for proving you are a douchebag. Epsom salt is NOT a great choice for Mg supplementation (unless you need a very strong laxative or want to use it in a bath), if you don’t know that you are a dullard and should STFU.

            I don’t see many articles about Mg sulfate used for any memory/cognitive benefits, reduction of anxiety, etc, do you, clown?

      • Karen Conklin

        You can buy spray on magnesium that gets absorbed better. I buy Seven Seas, there are many. Do buy it with Aloe vera as it can sting if you have a cut.

    • Isasan

      The Dutch Zechzal magnesium chloride is what I am using its the best:)

      • John Brailsford

        That is the source I also use.

    • J. Simons

      I know a woman who took the magnesium Threonate and after one week she had help with PTSD, anxiety, depression and stopped sleepwalking! No other magnesium did this for her. So sorry about your MS. I’m disabled and have discovered that several of my friends who were diagnosed with MS turned out to have chronic Lyme mimicking MS symptoms, healing with bee sting (bee venom) therapy. All best.

    • Deb

      Have good friend with MS,what is
      SPMS? How much mg chloride
      and what was patchs mag value.
      Thanks, deb

      • Godfrey

        Tell them to look into a supplement called Serrapeptase.

    • Godfrey
    • Peter8Piper

      You should run for office. I’d vote for you for sure.

  • Madi

    I read somewhere that mag T should only be taken on occasion… like in the case of a migraine. Does the fact that it crosses the BBB make it unsafe for those to take who still have amalgam fillings and/or haven’t chelated yet??

    • nadia

      Please elaborate. Why is it unsafe?

      • Madi

        I have had amalgam fillings for most of my life so I believe using this would allow mercury distribution from the body to cross over into the brain. I am going to begin the Andrew Cutler Protocol to chelate this out of my body. But I could be wrong.

        • Richard

          Do some research. Mineral deficiencies are a primary source of heavy metal problems. Make sure you supplement your minerals. And lipids/fats. Heavy metals attach at vacant binding sites.

          Vitamin C, among others, can help. Many folks starting large doses of C experience new mental clarity.

          Lots of good things to add to your diet that can help with heavy metal poisoning, yet are good for you even if you don’t have that problem. Suspicion is enough to pay closer attention to these dietary items.

        • PStan

          Hi Madi – I also have serious issues with mercury toxicity and am considering Magnesium L-Threonate. Your comment intrigued me – did you come to a conclusion over the L-Threonate. If you have used it, did it seem to make mercury symptoms worse? Thanks

        • Teresa

          I also would like more information about how any of these form of magnesium and metal filings interact.

  • Gail

    Does it hep fight/cure learning disability?

  • Laura

    What about magnesium threonate for someone with adhd symptoms or someone who did drugs for awhile? Will it help their brain?

  • kelly

    This is such an incomplete article. Why don’t you just write “plug here” with a link to Magteinä?

    • susan henderson

      You said what I was thinking.

    • Anne V. Richards

      It is of value to know exactly which substance was used in the studies reported on in the article . . . and complete or not, it’s full of good leads one can follow up on.

    • deenie1219

      Mag threonate is the real deal. I have seen lots of anecdotal reports of people who’ve had good benefits. It is Dr. Mercola’s favorite form of magnesium. I take it everyday and the old gourd is getting sharper so something good must be going on. Another brain helper is L-taurine, btw.

  • Marilyn L

    I’m confused about Mag L Threonate (Magtein) dosing. All brands say 667mg on front of bottle and 144mg per serving size of 3 caps on ingredients label. So if rec’d daily dose is 500mg that would be 10-11 caps/day (!) if going by the ingredients label. Not sure what the 667mg on front refers to. Am I missing something?

    • 667mg Magtein per cap = 48mg elemental Mg per cap. Times 3 caps per day is 144mg elemental Mg and 2g Magtein. 3 caps per day is the recommendation.

  • Khali

    where can one get that Magteina Magnesium to buy it?

    • Al Oliver

      I was wondering the same thing. Further, Amazon has a ton of Magtein products but no Magteina, with an “a” at the end. Same stuff?

      • Angela

        I’m also wondering if there is any difference between Magtein and Magteina.

  • Jude

    What about magnesium malate?

  • Sandy

    Can you take Magnesium threonate and citrate together? Also is it safe for age 16 and older teens

    • Liz

      My naturapath has me on both forms you mentioned. The age thing I don’t know. Since our soil is depleted, a little magnesium of any form would be good for kids since once upon a time they would have gotten it from the food. Should calm them down a bit, at least some forms of it do. Dr. Mercola goes into that.

    • Mary

      Sandy, I would say to notice the total dose and is it causing diarrhea? Then decide what dose to reduce it to to avoid that.
      I suspect that almost any form of mag can be overdosed.

  • Elissa

    If you take Epsom salt baths you absorb magnesium through the skin. The magnesium mellows you out and the sulfur detoxes you. I am not a scientist or nutritionist but I am curious about which form of magnesium we absorb through an Epsom salt bath, a very pleasant way to obtain magnesium.

    • Liz

      Wow! Great comment! I had forgotten about good ‘ole Epsom salts. Don’t know which form of mag it is, tho’. But if it works, hey! Still, should probably also take an oral supplement to make sure.

    • Valorie

      Magnesium sulfate.

    • Susie M Atkinson

      We see Dr Eric Nepute in St Louis, Mo check out his site at Nepute Wellness Center on FB He also has you tube videos as well we love him help us to when the EXPERT KU Dr’s had no idea what was wrong with my husband its a long story read my review on his page… This Dr is Amazing and extremely knowledgeable!!! he recommends 4lbs in bath water up to 8lbs depending on what is going on with your body stay in the bath for 45 mins as hot as you can take drink lots of water before and after as this will be a great detox if you are diabetic or low blood sugars eat before your bath you may start out 20 mins and increase I am 105lbs I told him I use a cup in my bath He’s laughed and said yeah your small but that won’t do a dam thing lol throw in a whole bag! we do now and LOVE IT!

    • geezerkemist

      It’s magnesium sulfate and the amount absorbed is rather small.

      • petulantes

        Idk about that , I make lotion out of the flakes … People tell me a 1/2 teaspoon makes them so relaxed they fall asleep in mere minutes at night . Insomnia sufferers ! The recipes are simple and readily available online – like wellness mama ! God bless , pray you all find that which works for your unique bodies!

    • Ingrid Cotey

      I heard and read that you have to do the bath every day to get even a significant amount in your system.

  • Kristofer Young, DC

    At MIT, was threonate compared with glycinate and chloride?

  • John Brailsford

    I have been regularly applying magnesium oil to my skin for about the last 3 years, I now mix it 2:1 with MSM which takes out some of the “sting” Having recently read about the 150,000 miles of blood vessels in the brain I thought it would be a good idea to start rubbing it into my hair and scalp, which I now do about once a week. I can certainly “feel” it getting into my brain. I have not yet noticed any improvement in my memory, but will continue doing this more frequently. Everything I have read about other forms of magnesium would indicate that absorption through the stomach is difficult and not much gets through. However, I am often surprised at the speed with which the magnesium oil is absorbed through the skin, whereby the MSM may help a bit.

  • Nanook

    Price is not bad, there are many companies producing Magtein products. Magtein.com list them. When you buy from a discount vitamin wholesaler like Lucky Vitamins, or Piping Rock the price is 40-50% lower than retail…

  • Kim Starchvill

    how can magnesuim affect migranes been getting them for over twenty years no meds help or work thing they are hormonal get them every month twice a month what can I do with magnesuim to help alleviate them ??

    • Liz

      Doesn’t hurt to try it.

  • Susan

    What about Magnesium Taurate, Glycinate and Malate? That’s what is in mine that I get from my chiropractor.

  • lynette mayo

    lynette mayo

  • lynette mayo

    l have been using an ‘Electrolyte Balance; formula. l use two teaspoons during day and two before bed. It also helps heartburn. Ingredients; Magnesium Bicarbonate, Sodium Bicarbonate, Potassium Bicarbonate, and Calcium Bicarbonate. 16 fl.oz.

    • Liz

      You should check that out with a good naturapath. I have a feeling all that bicarbonate may not be ideal.

    • Mary Ritter

      Curious to know what your chemistry blood panel results are like? Bicarbs make your blood more alkaline. If I an thinking correctly.

  • Josh

    To the migraine question.. i have read that magnesium blocks triggers like msg from getting to the brain..

  • sudio

    I take the Magnesium Malate form. 1,250 mg twice a day, as suggested in Wheat belly total health book.. should I also take the threonate form once a day on top of that?

  • Junior Valadares

    Mg Oxide is bad? It’s the only magnesium that I can find here in Amazon Forest.

    • Mary

      I would say that while taking magnesium oxide is not the best, I would rather that than no mag at all. Notice your own body and take the dose that fits you.
      I could easily get mag oxide here in Mexico and not other forms plus the 250 mg is NOT a huge horse pill. That alone kept me using it,
      Large capsules may go down easier than large pills.

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  • Mary

    If this form of magnesium is too costly for your budget, try combining it with another form of magnesium. We are almost all deficient in this essential mineral.
    I have read that magnesium oxide can cause diarrhea more easily than some others plus less easily absorbed.

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  • sdk14754977

    I got this for my dog who has Pannus, from living at a high altitude. I took some last night and slept like a baby. I usually have to get up at least once to go to the bathroom. Today I feel very calm and none of the usual post-menopausal anxiety and am thinking very clearly.

    • Mary Ritter

      How does it work for pannus? Isn’t that an inheritable degenerative cornea disease.

      • sdk14754977

        Mary, I don’t have a clue how it works. And it may not. But I’ve done a lot of looking for natural remedies for this because I do not want to use steroids and other toxic treatments. It is well known that steroids shorten the dogs life. I am following a protocol I found that worked for a man who seemed credible and sensible. So far, it is helping. I have been using it for about 2-3 weeks. I’m using the threonate, giving her pumpkin in her food, putting colloidal silver in her eyes every day and she wears UV protective goggles when she’s out. Pannus does not seem to be inherited any more than cancer is. The tendency to immune deficiencies may be inherited and that is what they are claiming Pannus is. Some GSD breeders say that although they have been breeding for decades, Pannus was almost unheard of until about 10-15 yrs. ago in their experience. My dog lived for her first two years in a mountainous, high altitude environment and female GSD’s who live high up are most susceptible.
        To me, as a 60+ yr old person, the sun seems brighter and hotter than in years past and maybe that has something to do with the increase in Pannus. We should all be protecting our eyes nowadays.

  • Terry

    We have been using Magnesium Chloride liquid, tablets and Magnesium Malate . For US ANYWAY the Malate seems to work better. Malic acid may help to reduce pain too. Each capsule is 800 mg malic acid and 200 mg magnesium. Swanson has great prices on all of the above. Since we are all different people should experiment to see what works for them. I have read that Magnesium oxide is next to worthless. Very cheap

  • DB

    Where can I buy Magteinä?

  • sallyfarrar

    Does anyone here know of a source for LIQUID Magnesium L-Threonate?

  • Alba

    Does the Magtein ™ formula contain any sugar or vinegar? I am on a Candida treatment and that would interfere with it.

    • No-grains-4-me

      Nope, but nano-particles yes.
      Mag threonate is not found in the nature, I wonder why it should be
      better than other forms. I’m sure it’s better for the patented maker,
      but just by reading the composition I’m pretty sure it’s not so good for
      us : I didn’t find magtein without at least silica and
      micro-crystalline cellulose. These anticaking agents are now generally
      included in supplements in nano-particles form.

  • Geezerkemist

    Sadly, the company that makes the patent protected Magtein has failed to produce on their oft-repeated promise to publish human studies that they claim show positive results. Until they do this I am skeptical about their extrapolations from animal studies(rats). As for crossing the BBB the claim is that magnesium threonate does this much better than other magnesium salts, including cheated forms. Having said this, I have personally noticed some positive benefits with Magtein as compared to other magnesium salts. I would urge caution, however, in progressing from a one capsule per day dose to the recommended three capsules. Do this very slowly, over a period of a month or so, and back off if any uncomfortable effects are felt

  • Barb H

    Please read: perfect information about Magnesiums https://examine.com/supplements/magnesium/

  • Fran Haugabrook-Scott

    What are the side effects, if any?

  • ron

    Is there a magnesium that’s best for high blood pressure?

  • Jeff

    Can you recommend any lab resources for measuring RBC Mg levels?

  • kc

    My father in law suffers from terrible and relentless essential tremor. I’ve read some studies and patient comments on the effectiveness of magnesium l-threonate in treating this disorder. Your thoughts Dr perlmutter?

  • JaNae

    My 27 year old daughter suffers from seizures. She has been on numerous medications but still has them. I am trying to find what type of magnesium is best for seizures and what dose to give her. Can you please tell me? Thank you in advance

  • Steve Liquori

    Is there a cardiovascular benefit form taking magnesium threonate

  • Poltroon

    Doctor. Unfortunately You are being a bit deceptive re Mg threonate. It’s ability to permeate the blood brain barrier isn’t unique at all because all forms of blood born mg are capable of penetrating the bbb. Causes me to wonder what other of your offerings are deceptive.

  • Janis

    Magnesium Malate works wonders for me.

  • Janis

    I used this magnesium threonate and it didn’t work for me…I sent it back to LE.

  • Erin Springfield

    Cheap easy way to get more magnesium is to simply take Epsom salt baths a few times a weeks. The magnesium is absorbed through the skin. My aunt had fibromyalgia and added magnesium baths twice a week to her schedule after I told her about it and she was able to stop using physical therapy treatments and get back to her daily walks. And someone asked about foods naturally high in magnesium. Almonds. And try almond butter. 🙂

  • Syndi

    Where do you get this Magteinä, or the combination of supplements as discussed above? It sounds similar to protandim?

  • KIP

    If the RDA is between 300 and 500 mg, why is the Magtein over 2000mg?

  • Lori

    Which is better for anxiety and depression…magnesium bisglcinate or l threonate
    Also does Magnesium have to be tsken with different vitamins for optimum absorption?

  • Kathy May-Alderson

    Where can I buy the magnesium sited in this article?

  • Amy Man Ming Lee

    Any side effects reported when taking the drug especially those people with moderate to high stroke risk ?

  • Siena Foxx

    Please remember that GMO foods with glyphosate are mineral chelating. Meaning the minerals are pulled out of the body. So if you are going to take mineral supplements, eat health non-gmo foods. Thanks!

    • deenie1219

      Um, even non-GM foods have glyphosate in them, lots of it. Farmers, for example, spray their wheat fields before harvesting to increase bushels per acre of wheat. Wheat is still non-GM but because of the spraying just prior, a few days, before harvesting the wheat berries, wheat is a major source of this toxin, glyphosate. Glyphosate not only chelates, binds to, minerals, it also acts as a antibiotic and endocrine disrupter, even in vanishingly small amounts. So, it is doing a “soft kill” of the people through three separate modalities. As an antibiotic, it kills off all the beneficial bacteria of the gut while not harming salmonella and E. coli. It is plain to see that glyphosate is a weapon of mass destruction, thanks to Monsanto and our government.

  • Shar

    Cynthia can we purchase this magnesium type now, or is it still in the study stage?

  • VChristine

    It’s interesting to read the comments below and how people seem locked into the idea that ‘synthetic anything’ is somehow deleterious. In fact, we’ve been set up to fail. Magnesium is not only depleted in our soil, magnesium is not abundantly available in the western diet ANYWAY, because it is an element destroyed by heat. And so few Americans consume food rare or raw. Magnesium is often found in a balance of 1 part magnesium to 2 parts calcium in certain foods, but when the magnesium is missing, the calcium is rendered indigestible. For example, the Magnesium present in milk, after pasteurization, is GONE. ..making milk for millions difficult to digest. Meat – normally an excellent source of magnesium, loses its available magnesium exponentially depending on how it’s cooked. So to refuse magnesium supplements, be it in a natural occurring form like Dolomite, or synthetic like Magnesium Threonate, is to be vulnerable to a deficiency. Which explains our nerve damaged population. Magnesium is related to nerve health. High fever can create a dramatic loss in magnesium levels, and resulting siezing, known as epilepsy. Restoration of sufficient levels cannot be achieved by food consumption alone. It requires theraputic levels of magnesium, in a form which may be absorbed into the brain – to see recovery. That said, do your homework and eat magnesium rich foods, but do that as much as possible RAW. And if you know someone with epilepsy or other nerve disorders, encourage them to take supplements such as magnesium threonate.

  • Juan Rodriguez

    In the past the way things worked was that floods would come down from the mountains and replenish the minerals in the soil, leaving Rich farmlands along the river banks that were perfect for growing food. Today we’ve dammed up most rivers to the point to where that really doesn’t happen anymore leaving most farms along the Colorado and Mississippi Rivers with as little as a quarter inch of topsoil left! 100 years ago these same farms had 2 feet of mineral rich topsoil! For this reason we now have tiny amounts of minerals in our foods, things like Magnesium, Molybdenum, Lithium, Selenium, Zinc and Copper are practically gone from our foods.

  • cpmn

    Dr. Perlmutter…

    Do you receive any benefit of any kind by promoting threonate over other forms of magnesium?

    And are you saying definitively that threonate crosses the blood brain barrier while other forms do not?

    Thank you.

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  • aconite1

    kelp for trace minerals. egg yolks for brain tissue, among other things.

  • Simone

    Hi, I hope this hasn’t been asked before, but I have two questions. Firstly, has there been any long term studies on possible side effects on magnesium threonate? Second people are talking about its use in ADHD in children to disperse confusion. Has research been done in this area? Thank you in advance.

    • David Perlmutter

      Regarding your first question, none that I am aware of. It seems to be one of the better tolerated forms of magnesium.

    • deenie1219

      The only side-effects I’ve experienced are all positive but they follow the general pattern of the effects of magnesium: more mellow mood, better sleep, and stronger muscles.

  • Darryl C.

    Ok.. I read, and read… BUT it doesn’t say how many Mcg or MG per serving

  • Andrew Barrientos
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  • Snootyelites

    Magnesium comes in many forms. Common ones are Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Gluconate. This

  • Snootyelites

    Cutting & Pasting Below Answer from Yahoo that addresses this issue:

    “Threonic acid, like Oxalic acid, is created when Vitamin C breaks down during cooking or decomposition. So plants high in Vitamin C that are past their best, and overcooked vegetables, are likely to contain quite a bit of them.

    Oxalic acid is regarded as a threat to mineral absorption, because it reacts easily with reactive minerals such as magnesium and calcium to form compounds that are difficult for your body to absorb.

    Combining especially high-Calcium foods with those high in oxalic acid (such as Chard and Spinach) is often recommended as a good way to ensure that enough un-reacted Calcium remains for your gut to absorb plenty of it.

    The same precaution might ensure that plenty of Magnesium becomes ‘Threonated’ during the cooking and digestion of your food. Fortunately, some of the highest magnesium-content foods are the same leafy green vegetables that provide Iron & Vitamin C; Magnesium is contained in the chlorophyll which makes these plants green. Some seeds contain a higher concentration, so adding Sesame, Pumpkin or Flax seeds to dishes containing a lot of ‘Brassicas’ (leafy veg such as Cabbage, Kale, and Broccoli, which are not the highest in oxalates) may maximise the amount of Mg Threo that is available to your digestive system.

    Of course, it could turn out that Mg Threo is just as ‘unavailable’ to your gut as Mg Oxalo is ; crossing the blood/brain barrier (which has only been demonstrated in rats, and may not happen in humans) does not mean that the compound can cross the gut wall. Threonates have only recently been the focus of examination, and if they were as useful as the marketing claims imply, it seems surprising that they would not have been noticed as a mitigating factor when Oxalates were found to cause problems.

    Some of the B vitamins are known to have positive effects on mental function that are similar to those claimed for Mg Threo, so you may be better off pursuing improvements in your intake of those. If you are already optimising your B sources, Mg threo may not be particularly useful in any case. Most chemical interventions are less effective where function is already high or boosted.”

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  • Whitney McCullough

    If you take this, is there any reason to take say, magnesium citrate too?

  • Erin

    Is it safe to take Magnesium Threonate if one has had a stroke and is on baby aspirin everyday?

  • Bonnie Derr

    How much Magnesium Theron ate does a body need?

  • Carlee

    Question: How should magnesium l-threonate be taken? With or without food, for the best absorption

  • Han-Lin Yong

    How do other forms of magnesium cause a person to be calm when they don’t cross the BBB? Don’t insomnia and anxiety happen in the brain?

    Won’t other forms of magnesium eventually cross the BBB? If they don’t, how do our brains get magnesium in the first place?

  • Gary Smith

    I just want confirmation, please, before I purchase. I am already taking (magnesium 133 mg 33%, as magnesium citrate); I take 3 per day. I take that for insomnia, anxiety, mood swing, depression, and stress – and it works perfectly, better than any pharmaceutical I have taken over the past 18-years. Although the citrate formula is better known for its constipation benefits, it actually works great for what I just mentioned. Because all of those are nerve related, I am almost certain the magnesium threonate will work even better; but the main reason I want to start the threonate form is for better concentration and memory owing that I will be starting law school this fall at age 60. I take a lot of supplements and do not need added vitamin C, D, or anything. The brand name Magtein seems like it adds other vitamins like C, which might be why it is trademarked as Magtein rather than just simply threonate. Must I have magnesium threonate mixed with vitamin C? What I am looking for is simply chelated, pure magnesium threonate (meaning without anything added to it, like in powder form; but pill form will be fine. Although I have read where I can continue taking the citrate form, I might not need to if all I am looking for is the relief of those mentioned mental issue, because on my recent blood work it shows Magnesium, RBC 6.7 mg/DL on a scale of 4.2 – 6.8. Do you agree that I can drop the citrate and go with threonate and should have the same results on insomnia, anxiety, mood swing, depression, and stress without threonate increasing my elemental level. Thank you. Gary

  • Janice Giordano


  • joe

    Is Magnesium Threonate the best form of magnesium to take for heart palpatations/arrhythmia or would the topical magnesium chloride be better?

  • Jerri Jones

    I see many posts here from 2 to 3 years ago. What is the latest regarding Magteinä currently? Are still taking it? What are the results? What brand do you use?

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