Hal Tily, Ally Perlina, Eric Patridge, Stephanie Gline, Matvey Genkin, Vishakh Gopu, Haely Lindau, Alisson Sjue, Iordan Slavov, Niels Klitgord, Momchilo Vuyisich, Helen Messier, Guruduth Banavar
Limiting post-meal glycemic response is an important factor in reducing the risk of chronic metabolic diseases, and contributes to significant health benefits in people with elevated levels of blood sugar. In this study, we collected gut microbiome activity (i.e., metatranscriptomic) data and measured the glycemic responses of 550 adults who consumed more than 30,000 meals from omnivore or vegetarian/gluten-free diets. We demonstrate that gut microbiome activity makes a statistically significant contribution to individual variation in glycemic response, in addition to anthropometric factors and the nutritional composition of foods. We describe predictive models (multilevel mixed-effects regression and gradient boosting machine) of variation in glycemic response among individuals ingesting the same foods. We introduce functional features aggregated from microbial activity data as candidates for association with mechanisms of glycemic control. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that metatranscriptomic activity of the gut microbiome is correlated with glycemic response among adults.