Laura Bonfili, Valentina Cecarini, Sara Berardi, Silvia Scarpona, Jan S. Suchodolski, Cinzia Nasuti, Dennis Fiorini, Maria Chiara Boarelli, Giacomo Rossi1 & Anna Maria Eleuteri
Gut microbiota has a proven role in regulating multiple neuro-chemical pathways through the highly interconnected gut-brain axis. Oral bacteriotherapy thus has potential in the treatment of central nervous system-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Current AD treatments aim to prevent onset, delay progression and ameliorate symptoms. In this work, 3xTg-AD mice in the early stage of AD were treated with SLAB51 probiotic formulation, thereby affecting the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites. This influenced plasma concentration of inflammatory cytokines and key metabolic hormones considered therapeutic targets in neurodegeneration. Treated mice showed partial restoration of two impaired neuronal proteolytic pathways (the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy). Their cognitive decline was decreased compared with controls, due to a reduction in brain damage and reduced accumulation of amyloid beta aggregates. Collectively, our results clearly prove that modulation of the microbiota induces positive effects on neuronal pathways that are able to slow down the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.