Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD; Elizabeth J. Mayer-Davis, PhD; Sharon Saydah, PhD; Giuseppina Imperatore, MD; Barbara Linder, MD, PhD; Jasmin Divers, PhD; Ronny Bell, PhD ; Angela Badaru, MD; Jennifer W. Talton, MS; Tessa Crume, PhD; Angela D. Liese, PhD; Anwar T. Merchant, DMD, ScD; Jean M. Lawrence, ScD, MPH, MSSA; Kristi Reynolds, PhD; Lawrence Dolan, MD; Lenna L. Liu, MD, MPH; Richard F. Hamman, MD, DrPH
IMPORTANCE: Despite concern about an “epidemic,” there are limited data on trends in prevalence of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes across US race and ethnic groups.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in the prevalence of type 1and type 2 diabetes in US youth, by sex, age, and race/ethnicity between 2001 and 2009.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Case patients were ascertained in 4 geographic areas and 1 managed health care plan. The study population was determined by the 2001 and 2009 bridged-race intercensal population estimates for geographic sites and membership counts for the health plan.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Prevalence (per 1000) of physician-diagnosed type 1 diabetes in youth aged 0 through 19 years and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10 through 19 years.
RESULTS: In 2001, 4958 of 3.3 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.48 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.44-1.52). In 2009, 6666 of 3.4 million youth were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a prevalence of 1.93 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.88-1.97). In 2009, the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes was 2.55 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 2.48-2.62) and the lowest was 0.35 per 1000 in American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.26-0.47) and type 1 diabetes increased between 2001 and 2009 in all sex, age, and race/ethnic subgroups except for those with the lowest prevalence (age 0-4 years and American Indians). Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 21.1% (95% CI, 15.6%-27.0%) increase in type 1 diabetes over 8 years. In 2001, 588 of 1.7 million youth were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.34 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.31-0.37). In 2009, 819 of 1.8 million were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for a prevalence of 0.46 per 1000 (95% CI, 0.43-0.49). In 2009, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 1.20 per 1000 among American Indian youth (95% CI, 0.96-1.51); 1.06 per 1000 among black youth (95% CI, 0.93-1.22); 0.79 per 1000 among Hispanic youth (95% CI, 0.70-0.88); and 0.17 per 1000 among white youth (95% CI, 0.15-0.20). Significant increases occurred between 2001 and 2009 in both sexes, all age-groups, and in white, Hispanic, and black youth, with no significant changes for Asian Pacific Islanders and American Indians. Adjusted for completeness of ascertainment, there was a 30.5% (95% CI, 17.3%-45.1%) overall increase in type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Between 2001 and 2009 in 5 areas of the United States,the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents increased. Further studies are required to determine the causes of these increases.