Mercedes Clemente-Postigo, Maria Isabel Queipo-Ortuno, Maria Boto-Ordonez, Leticia Coin-Araguez, Maria del Mar Roca-Rodriguez, Javier Delgado-Lista, Fernando Cardona, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, and Francisco J Tinahones
Background: Chronic red wine (RW) consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular disease risk, mainly attributed to an improvement in lipid profile. RW intake is also able to change the composition of gut microbiota. High fat intake has recently been reported to increase metabolic endotoxemia. The gut microbiota has been proposed as the main resource of plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in metabolic endotoxemia.
Objective: We analyzed the effect on LPS concentrations of chronic RW consumption and acute RW intake in relation to high fat intake in middle-aged men.
Design: For the chronic study, 10 middle-aged male volunteers were randomly assigned in a crossover trial, and after a washout period, all subjects received RW, dealcoholized red wine (DRW), or gin for 20 d. Serum endotoxin and LPS-binding protein (LBP) concentrations were determined after the washout period and after each of the treatments, and changes in fecal microbiota were quantified. For the acute study, 5 adult men underwent a fat overload or a fat overload together with the consumption of RW, DRW, or gin. Baseline and postprandial serum LPS and LBP concentrations and postprandial chylomicron LPS concentrations were measured.
Results: There were no significant differences in the change in LPS or LBP concentrations between chronic RW, DRW, and gin consumption. Bifidobacterium and Prevotella amounts were significantly increased by RW and correlated negatively with LPS concentrations. There were no differences in postprandial serum LPS, LBP, or chylomicron LPS concentrations between acute RW, DRW, or gin intake together with a fatty meal.
Conclusion: Chronic RW consumption increases Bifidobacterium and Prevotella amounts, which may have beneficial effects by leading to lower LPS concentrations. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.