Yong Zhang, Heping Zhang
Recently, it has been established that the human resident microbiota plays key roles in health maintenance. Therefore, it has become an emerging prevention and treatment target for metabolic syndrome. The resident microbiota associated with chronic inflammation has been shown to contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Moreover, the microbiota is altered in the development of T2DM and its comorbid medical conditions/diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, kidney toxicity, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetic foot ulcers, cycstic fibrosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Besides, some anti-T2DM regimens are also based microbiota metabolism-dependent mechanism. This review summarizes the current knowledge concerning the altered microbiota in the pathogenesis of T2DM and its related complications, which provides novel insights into these diseases and the potential intervention strategies from the microbiology point of view.