Paula D. Dworatzek, PhD, RD, Kathryn Arcudi, PDt, CDE, Réjeanne Gougeon, PhD, Nadira Husein, MD, FRCPC, John L. Sievenpiper, MD, PhD, Sandra L. Williams, MEd, RD, CDE
• People with diabetes should receive nutrition counselling by a registered dietitian.
• Nutrition therapy can reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) by 1.0% to 2.0% and, when used with other components of diabetes care, can further improve clinical and metabolic outcomes.
• Reduced caloric intake to achieve and maintain a healthier body weight should be a treatment goal for people with diabetes who are overweight or obese.
• The macronutrient distribution is flexible within recommended ranges and will depend on individual treatment goals and preferences.
• Replacing high glycemic index carbohydrates with low glycemic index carbohydrates in mixed meals has a clinically significant benefit for glycemic control in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
• Intensive lifestyle interventions in people with type 2 diabetes can produce improvements in weight management, fitness, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors.
• A variety of dietary patterns and specific foods have been shown to be of benefit in people with type 2 diabetes.
• Consistency in carbohydrate intake and in spacing and regularity in meal consumption may help control blood glucose and weight.